Niger river region

Niger River Basin in West and Central Africa covers a total area of 2.13 million km2.

With a total length of around 4,100 km, the Niger River flows from the source in the highlands of Guinea [in south-eastern Guinea near the Sierra Leone border] through the arid areas of the Sahel through Mali, Niger, on the border with Benin and emptying through a massive delta, known as the Niger Delta into the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean

The Niger River is a vital energy source for West Africa, with an installed hydropower capacity of 2,000 MW. However, only a fraction of its potential has been harnessed. Challenges include high water withdrawal for irrigation, impacting the river's flow.

Environmental threats, such as mining and deforestation, pose risks to water quality. The region's energy landscape relies heavily on biomass, with a scarcity of modern fuels.

The diverse agroecological zones demand controlled irrigation, set to increase from 265,000 ha (2005) to 1.6 million ha by 2025. With surface water dependence rising from 45% (2005) to an anticipated 45% (2025), managing water resources is crucial for the basin's sustainable future.