South Eastern Africa (Mozambique)

The South East Africa region is an African region that is intermediate between East Africa and Southern Africa, It constitutes about 450 million people and 22 countries including Mozambique, Ethiopia, Malawi, Zambia, Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania and Zimbabwe

Mozambique is a south-east African country with a long coastline bordering the Indian Ocean of 2,700 kilometres facing east to Madagascar. The country is endowed with ample resources, including arable land, abundant water sources, energy, and mineral resources, as well as newly-discovered deposits of natural gas off its coast.

Mozambique has made significant strides in its energy sector, reaching a total installed capacity of 2,799 MW by the end of 2022, with ambitious plans to increase it to 6,320 MW by 2030. Hydropower dominates the energy mix at 78%, followed by gas (16%), heavy fuel oil (4%), and solar (2%).

However, water availability remains a challenge, with seasonal and uneven distribution, leading to regional water stress. Only 47% of the population has access to basic water sources, emphasizing the need for improved water infrastructure. Mozambique boasts numerous river basins, lakes, and reservoirs, contributing to its freshwater resources.

Climate change poses risks, with temperature increases and uncertain precipitation patterns. Agriculture is the primary water consumer, utilizing 87% of total withdrawals, while industry and domestic sectors account for 11% and 2%, respectively.

Irrigation potential is substantial, estimated at 3,072,000 ha, concentrated in the central and northern regions. Mozambique's irrigation history dates back to the pre-independence era, with current equipped irrigation covering 118,120 ha. Commercial large-scale sugar estates dominate irrigation usage, highlighting the need for inclusive and sustainable agricultural water management practices.